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November 9, 2022 3:47 pm

Social Solidarity Among Muslims And Allama Iqbal 

By Dr. Ali Mohammad Rather 

SOLIDARITY is an awareness of shared interests objectives standards and sympathies creating a psychological sense of unity of groups or classes . It refers to the ties in a society that binds people together as one. According to Emile Durkheim the solidarity in primitive society was based on homogeneity of the individuals, who had same economic opportunities and that has been termed as mechanical solidarity and on the other and with the development of division of labour it became more complicated. With the complexity in social situations, it has been referred to as organic solidarity. The social solidarity as per this theory is more and more complex due to complexity of division of labour. When we discuss about Islam , Quran itself declares that social solidarity can be achieved when they hold to the chain of Allah (3:103) it is said to be the deen , the holy Quran, which must be held strongly. Now what does the deen mean?, Talking from the general Principle the belief in five pillars of Islam is considered as adherence to Islamic faith .These are kalima, which is the initiation to Islam or recognition that one is Muslim who recites it. The Nimaz is the ritual which is unique worship of Muslims and also a binding force of ummah. The congregational prayer or the Nimazi jamaat is an important rituals which binds the Muslims five times a day and brings them close to each other. FAST– the annul social action which brings peace to mind and solidarity in the form of realization of thirst and needs of downtrodden, zakat is the charity for the people in dire need. The Prophet is reported to have said: Zakah (obligatory charity) is the third pillar of Islam, which was ordained by God to achieve social justice in society. The rich must give it to poor voluntarily because it is the poor’s due on them. – Haj ; the Annual pilgrimage, which is nothing but an annual international meet of ummah, again an initiative for the social solidarity of ummah. (Social Justice in Islam Dr. Mohsen Haredy 02 May, 2016 ASK ABOUT ISLAM ).

When talking from the orthodox point of view, the faith is based on three basic principles ; Tauheed,-The oneness of God. Nubuwah ; belief in 1.24 lac prophets, with Prophet Mohammad s.a.w as the last and the seal of prophet hood and Qiyamat- the day of resurrection. The day which every Muslim has to believe without any doubt.

These basic pillars of Islamic faith bind the ummah closely together. These principles tie the ummah together like a chain, so that there is solidarity created among the people of the faith.

Iqbal explains that Muslim unity is due to religion of Islam. The last ummah derives identity from prophet Mohammad s.a.w. and as such helps the symbol of our identity and purpose. (Chaudri, M.Asraf “the Muslim Ummah & Iqbal p. 127 )

Alama Iqbal talks about tauheed   as the pillar of social solidarity among Muslims.

Tauheed: Belief in the one-ness of Allah. The most important feature of a Muslim society is its faith in the unity of God. The individual through the unity becomes Divine. Then nation through the unity become omnipotent. And both attain their perfection through the unity. Life brings for the later majesty and for the former beauty. (Chaudri, M.Asraf. p 120.)

The ideals of a Muslim is the preservation and propagation of the unity of God i.e. tauheed. A Muslim society and tauheed are like body and soul to each other. Collective life is possible only by being faithful to societal ideal and the ideal of a Muslim is the preservation and propagation of the unity of God i.e. Tauheed. A Muslim society and tauheed are like body and soul to each other (Chaudri, M.Asraf. p  149). The faith in tauheed (monotheism), on the one hand, creates psychic cohesion within the individual self, and on the other provides a principle of unity for the community (Millat).Thus the Islamic individuals are bound together by ideological bonds within the framework of the Millat—community. In other words, the individual, isolated from the community, remains insecure, weak and powerless; his energies are scattered and his aims narrow, diffuse and indefinite Allama Muhammad Iqbal. (The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, p 122 )

Emphasizing on the principle of unity, Nubuwa  is an important pillar of deen as it is the indispensable component of deen. Muslims are a nation and it is due to the fact that they are followers of  prophet Mohamad s.a.w. The unity of faith of prophets is responsible for is due to the last prophet Hazrat Mohammad s.a.w that his followers the ummah -the last ummah.(Ou Rasul ra khatam ma aqwami ra in  Ramuzi Baikhudi p 143).

The unity of Muslims with regard to respect and regard for each other is mentioned in a story story of i Bu abaida and Jaban  in the light of Islamic integration RAMOOZ BAIKUDI   . “it is related that in a war between (gazak event 13 hijra) Iranians and Muslims. An Iranian offices was captured by a Muslim sepoy. The officer hid his identity from the sepoy and requested to grant him freedom. The said Muslim sepoy granted him freedom .when the Iranian army was defeated they came to know that he was the commander of the army called Jaban. Muslims requested the Ameer to kill him but he refused saying that he has been granted amaan by one of the Muslim soldiers, even if he is an ordinary soldier. There is no difference whoever gives a promise , whether it is from Hazrat Ali a.s or Abuzarr or it may Qamber or Bilal for that purpose. Prophet s.a.w is not of  any particular place but a universal one rehamtan lil alameen. with no bounds. He further says that Mohmad s.a.w was Prophet , when Adam a.s was not even created. ( Ramuzi Baikhdi p 185.)

Kabah the symbol of solidarity

A free and independent Muslims fraternity having the Kabba as its center and knit together in spiritual union by love of Allah & devotion and prophet is Iqbals ideal.  (Ramuzi Baikhdi 127 ) Iqbal suggests that for a society its unity and discipline emanates from the Centre-Kabbah as the center for Muslims is a link between the individual of a society and this is the secret of their unity (Ramuzi Baikhdi 135 ) It helps in maintaining the unity of Muslims and promotes their integration as religions community as once a year assembly there, not only truly reflects equality, but also promotes fraternity with a view to achieve solidarity. Kabah is regarded as the nucleus of the universe around which the nimazees and hajis perform tawaf , which is analogous to the   the circling of electrons around the nucleus in an atom. It is also analogues to the solar system, where sun is the core and planets revolve around. If planets deviates from the path or lose their attraction with the sun  , all will collapse and similarly if electrons in the nucleus of an atom lose their revolution around the nucleus, the atom will collapse and the  same will be the  future of a person , who detaches himself from the kabah.

Islamic government to integrate Muslims on various units of power is required (Ramuzi Baikhdi 149). It was for this purpose that Alama Iqbal established the political ideology of Pakistan, in which is deeply rooted the Islamic values contained in the Quranic teachings, and the traditions (Sunnah) of the Prophet. The founder of the world community of Islam, for Iqbal, the political ideology of Pakistan would primarily be composed of two basic elements, namely, the Quranic concept of the universal Millah (community) and his concept of the Self (khudī). It was, in fact, within such an ideological framework that lqbal was confronted with the problem of redefining the political status of the Indian Muslims in accordance with the contemporary political terminology. In order to achieve this objective, Iqbal had expounded the Two-Nation Theory as the basis for claiming the right of self determination of the Indian Muslims, for carving out a separate Muslim State. Thus, naturally, the concepts of the universal community—Milat and the Two—Nation Theory constitute the crux of the political philosophy of Pakistan. However, obviously, the inherent contradictions between these two propositions creates a theoretical difficulty of a fundamental nature. The question arises as to how Iqbal proposed to reconcile Islamic universalism with modern territorial nationalism. Unless the inherent dichotomy is resolved, the political ideology of Pakistan would remain vague, and confusing, and would fail to bring about the much desired national integration of its diverse elements, namely, regions, classes, and other primary groups. The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in islam. p.122)


Islam for Iqbal is an eternal religion whose aims and objectives are the salvation of human beings and creating such a social order where humans are equal and there is clear solidarity among masses. The principles which hold them together i.e. tauheed., Nubuwah, kabbah and Islamic government have been discussed in the light of Iqbals thought. Tauheed is the most important factor of unity of human being. The tauheed that oneness of Allah in the sense that He has no one to share His will. He is not who can be visualized, He is, who can not be determined at any particular place .So far as the Prophets are concerned the belief in them as an another pillar of the unity. There is no ambiguity in their existence , their number and their importance in connecting Human being to Almighty. The belief that Prophet Mohmad s.a.w is the final prophet and his emergence in the spiritual form was prior to the birth of Adam.a.s. This belief integrates the ummah and if anyone doubts this can’t be a true believer. The third pillar of social solidarity among Muslims is the Kabah. The house of Allah which was established by Adam a.s as the hujrah aswad arrived on earth from the paradise and then prophet Ibrahim constructed it and let it open for the Ummah to perform the ritual Haj. This holy place, nicknamed as the House of Allah, is that which integrates the Muslims of world, who bow towards it five times a day and those who circumambulate the Kabah. The Islamic government is not the government of a particular country like Pakistan, Iran etc. but ummah is the nation of that country which has no boundary.

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