In Kashmir, poultry is only thought to refer to chickens. But the word poultry includes turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks, geese, quails, pigeons, pheasants, partridges, ostriches and emus besides chickens, which are reared or kept in captivity. Kashmirs majority population being non vegetarian, there is huge potential when it comes to poultry industry. This industry can be a great source of employment to the unemployed youth of Kashmir valley. But to make it a success, the youth of Kashmir need to be properly trained by experts. To do so, they can attend training programs at various reputed poultry training institutes like Dr B. V. Rao Institute of Poultry Management and Technology, Suguna Institute of Poultry Management-a pioneer in broiler integration and contract farming which imparts education and training on scientific poultry production, poultry farming, poultry breeder management, hatchery, feed manufacturing and most importantly disease control.
The objective is to learn to prevent the introduction of infectious agents and minimize the chances of infectious diseases. Bio security and quarantine are integral parts of any successful poultry production system. It is essential that a risk assessment be conducted for each poultry enterprise to establish what level of risk exists in each phase of its operations and to identify and implement control measures appropriate to these levels of risk.
Bio security is like any other insurance policy and as such is a prudent investment. Major routes for disease and pathogen transmission are transfer of birds from production area, improper disposal, equipment, vehicles, air and water supply, poultry feed, other animals like wild birds, feral and domestic animals including other livestock and pets, insects, rodents, domestic birds, people including farm family members living on site, caretakers and visitors. Disease causing microbes can be transmitted by various means like hands, boots, clothing and hair. Effective bio security procedures are the practical measures which limit the spread of infectious diseases and pests, both within a farm and from one farm to another, to prevent and control exotic and endemic diseases that threaten poultry. Bio security is good and imperative for business. Common infectious diseases of poultry such as coccidiosis, infectious laryngotracheitis and Mareks disease poseconstant challenges to this industry and can chronically lower flock performance. Better farm bio security can improve overall flock health, cut the costs of disease treatment, reduce losses and improve farm profitability. Bio security is also the best form of defence against emergency diseases.
Biosecurity includes various levels and procedures. These are:
Levels of Biosecurity
LEVEL 1 – Routine Biosecurity Procedures
These procedures should be implemented and followed on a daily basis. They give a high degree of assurance that diseases and pathogens will not be carried into poultry production areas and reduce the risk of transmission between production areas. Considered as a minimum requirement for any poultry, these include:
1) Documentation and training with objective to ensure awareness by and training of all production area employees in all relevant bio security requirements.
2) Facility standards to limit and control access to poultry production areas by people and prevent (as much as possible) access by livestock, wild birds and other animals (including rodents).
3) Personnel standards and procedures to minimise the risk of introducing or spreading a disease or contaminant through people movement, including staff, contractors, suppliers and other service personnel, visitors and family members and to document such movements to facilitate tracing in case of a concern.
4) Operational standards including water supply to ensure water used in poultry sheds for drinking, cooling and cleaning is suitable for livestock.
5) Species specific additional bio security requirements with objective to build on the generic poultry bio security requirement and reflect the species specific measures that must be adopted by the different poultry sectors.
LEVEL 2 – High Risk Bio security Procedures
The objective is to increase bio security protection by minimising movement on and off the property and to protect the property from the increased threat of a disease being introduced in a suspected outbreak of an emergency disease or a serious endemic disease. The procedures include:
1) Action plan with documentation of clear guidelines for suspected emergency animal disease
2) Facilities like gates must be kept locked. Shed doors must be locked at night, facilities for cleaning and disinfecting the equipment coming on and off the production area must be in place.
3) Restriction of visitors to production area is also an important procedure. Company personnel should discontinue routine visits except on suspicion of problems.
4) Operational standards which includes only essential visits with head to toe shower before and after visit. Complete changing of clothes, foot wear, hair covering and breathing protection is required. Used clothing and personnel protection equipment must remain on the property. Besides this, vehicles entering the poultry farm or property must be washed and disinfected at the wash pad before and after going onto the property. Vehicle driver cabins must also be sanitized inside.
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