A moderately seasoned writer, Sorayya Khan has already written a couple of novels, Noor and Five Queens Road, that have established her as a writer who possesses a sound knack for being able to describe things vividly with a marked linguistic clarity. Her latest endeavour, City of Spies is situated primarily in Islamabad and briefly in Lahore. The main action takes place from mid-1977 through late-1979. Although this period in Pakistan witnessed important national events such as Zulfikar Ali Bhuttos execution and Gen Ziaul Haqs subsequent consolidation of power, this particular political perspective of the novel simply acts as a backdrop to the far more central coming-of-age story of its pre-teen protagonist, Aliya. Indeed, Bhutto and Gen Zia appear almost incidental to the main story itself; their names serve the situational purpose of anchoring the book during a particular period of time in Pakistans interesting political history. Given how a number of modern South Asian fiction writers overwhelm their creations with political ramifications, this approach is both refreshing and uncommon on the part of its author.
The daughter of a Pakistani, Javid, who relocates from Europe to Pakistan with his Dutch-born wife, Irene, Aliya is the youngest of three siblings. Her older sister Lehla and brother Amir are marginal figures in the tale far more major to the general plot is the familys loyal servant, Sadiq. In the early portion of the novel, Aliya is portrayed as being far more influenced by Sadiqs family dynamics than she is by those of her own relatives (up to and including her rather formidable paternal grandfather). Shortly after the commencement of the novel, an American expatriates car kills Sadiqs pre-teen son, Hanif, in a hit-and-run accident on a poorly lit road. The episode is made even more poignant by the heart-rending and ironic fact that the boy had gone shopping for shoes with his father, so that he could eventually negotiate the local roads better. This tragedy acts as the implicit lynchpin for the novel; most of the plot relates, either directly or indirectly, to the unfortunate manslaughter of the child.
Khan does an admirable job of outlining Aliyas angst at being half-white, and hence constantly having issues with her identity. Even though she attends an American school and boasts a close friend, Lizzy Simon, who is American, Aliya invariably feels out of place in the predominantly desi Pakistani milieu of her home. Javid and his father are, in spite of the formers relatively liberal marriage, quintessentially Pakistani and patriarchal when it comes to major aspects of their outlook on life. Indeed, one of the most superbly constructed characters in terms of structure and authenticity is Aliyas mother Irene, whom the reader cannot help but praise for both her Dutch common sense as well as the way she expertly adjusts to life amongst the Pakistanis.
In spite of being blessed with a sensible, no-nonsense mother, Aliya develops a number of complexes about having a paler skin tone than most of the people of her country, and later a far more disturbing attitude towards how this ties into superiority and a sense of entitlement. Yet this does not prevent her from enjoying a relatively healthy childhood friendship with Lizzy, whose American background does not present any real impediments to the development of her pleasant, friendly interactions with Aliya. It is always sad to watch children grow up too fast, but Aliya has no choice other than to do so, especially once the tragic aforementioned accident takes place. Khan skilfully describes Aliyas touching personal relationship with Sadiq, who among other things teaches her Urdu, and the reader gradually becomes fully convinced that the protagonists loyalty towards this valuable servant provides the novel with much of its sincere emotional momentum.
Certainly the late 70s were a tense time for politics in general and Pakistan in particular insofar as Zulfikar Ali Bhuttos hanging, Gen Zias Islamisation of the state, the hostage situation in Tehran, and the occupation of the Kaaba were concerned. All these events are specifically alluded to in the novel; the most major and traumatic political motif, however, involves the burning of the American embassy in Islamabad. In a manner similar to Bina Shahs A Season for Martyrs and Kamila Shamsies A God in Every Stone, Khans book incrementally builds up towards a gripping political climax. In Shahs case it is Benazir Bhuttos fatalistic automobile journey, in Shamsies it is the Peshawar massacre of the 30s, and in Khans novel, things come to a head with anti-American tensions erupting in sensitive areas of the nations capital. Not only does she effectively describe the justified fright that Aliya and Lizzy experience at their American school that day, she also deftly ties in this major episode with the novels ultimate conclusion several years later where all mysteries are clearly explained.
Based on this book it is evident that one of Khans greatest strengths as an emerging voice of Pakistani fiction is her ability to maintain equal levels of control over both plot and character. Far too often, novelists are unable to seamlessly merge political events with the mundane domestic machinations of their plots. Fortunately this is not a problem for Khan, and might count as the main reason why her novels pace and momentum never flag. At times, the heightened dramatic quality of her work gives it the feel of a tear-jerker Indian film, but this is not overall a displeasing effect, especially since the fundamental purpose of novels is to entertain as opposed to instruct. In spite of the inevitable racist undercurrents of the book, and the characters highly strung reactions, a genuine warmth and sweetness pervades the text at many junctures largely due to Khans portrayal of universal family values that transcend both class and culture.
We are left with a plethora of positive private images including Irene lovingly baking Dutch treats for her family, Aliyas grandfather taking care of his granddaughter during the tensions at the embassy, and Sadiq paying close attention to Aliya reading Urdu newspapers. This helps alleviate difficult angst-ridden scenes such as those where Javid, who is the head of the Water and Power Development Authority, rages against Gen Zias policies, Sadiqs half-crazed reactions when he discovers where the killer of his son resides, and numerous moments where Aliya experiences a type of self-loathing that while understandable is nonetheless rather painful to witness regardless of ones personal background. On turning the last page one cannot help but feel that Khan should be commended for structuring a work of fiction that both furthers the overall development of Pakistani fiction and joins the ranks of entertaining and well-written modern novels.
City of Spies
By Sorayya Khan
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